History Of Impressionism
Paris Under Siege
Artists' petitions requesting a new Salon des RefusÃ©s in 1867, and again in 1872, were denied. In the latter part of 1873, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Sisley organized the SociÃ©tÃ© Anonyme CoopÃ©rative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs
("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and
Engravers") for the purpose of exhibiting their artworks independently.
Members of the association, which soon included CÃ©zanne, Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Degas,
were expected to forswear participation in the Salon. The organizers
invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their
inaugural exhibition, including the older EugÃ¨ne Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to take up plein air painting years before. Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar.